What is medullary cavernoma?

Also known as cavernous angioma, cavernoma is a vascular malformation present from birth. On rare occasions, it develops due to the inference of external factors, such as radiotherapy.


  • Spinal pain at the level of bleeding.
  • Spinal cord compression.
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Epidural and subdural hematomas also appear, which are usually preceded by intense spinal, interscapular, or lumbar pain. As a general rule, they require surgical drainage and decompression.


  • intramedullary hemorrhage

When spinal cord parenchyma is produced by vascular rupture, hematometra develops. The hemorrhage is located at the spinal cord level and produces severe spinal pain, paresis, sensory and sphincteric alterations.

  • extramedullary hemorrhage

This type of hemorrhage is less frequent and is located in the epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid. The three cases present a serious clinical picture whose prognosis depends on the speed of diagnosis and urgent evacuation surgery.


The diagnosis of cavernous malformations is made through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or genetic analysis. Through magnetic resonance imaging, detailed images of the area can be obtained, but in addition, the doctor can also inject a contrast dye to better observe the tissue.

As for genetic tests, these can be of great help if there is a family history that also suffers from the disease. So through these tests, it will be possible to detect changes in the genes or chromosomes associated with cavernous malformations.


Treatment is divided into three phases: observation, medication, and surgery. First, a physical examination will be carried out accompanied by diagnostic tests to observe if there are changes in the malformation.

Depending on the condition of the malformation and the patient’s symptoms, the doctor may also prescribe medications to stop seizures related to the cavernous malformation.

Finally, if the symptoms related to the malformation can be treated surgically, the doctor will agree on surgery.

What specialist treats you?

Specialists in vascular neurosurgery are responsible for the treatment of injuries that cause hemorrhages or infarcts in the brain or spinal cord.